CSS

Solutions

CSS Solutions

Possible solutions for the CSS exercises.

1.1

/* header */

body > header {
  background-color: #046dd5;
  color: white;

  padding: 1em;
}

body > header h1, body > header h2{
  margin: 0;
}

body > header a {
  color: white;
  text-decoration: none;  
}

body > header #signup a:first-child {
  border-right: 1px solid white;
}

body > header #signup a {
  padding: 0 1em;
}

body > header #signup a:first-child {
  padding-left: 0;
}

/* navigation */

#menu ul {
  margin: 0;
  padding: 0;
}

#menu li {
  background-color: white;
  text-align: center;

  list-style-type: none;

  padding: 1em 0;
}

#menu li a{
  color: black;
  text-decoration: none;
}

#menu li:hover {
  background-color: #2a2f33;
}

#menu li:hover a{
  color: white;
}

#hamburger, .hamburger {
  display: none;
}

/* article */

#news header {
  max-width: 10em;
  padding: 1em;
  position: absolute;
}

#news header h1{
  margin: 0;

  text-shadow: .2em .2em .2em black;
}

#news header a{
  color: white;
  text-decoration: none;
}

#news img {
  width: 100%;
}

#news > article {
  background-color: white;

  margin: 1em 1em 1em 0;
}

#news > article > p{
  padding: 0 1em;
}

#news > article > p:first-of-type:first-letter{
  font-size: 2em;
}

#news footer {
  color: white;
  background-color: #f4655f;

  padding: 1em;
}

#news footer a{
  color: white;
  text-decoration: none;
  border-bottom: 1px solid white;
  padding-bottom: 2px;
}

#news footer .tags {
  margin-right: 1em;
}

#news footer .comments {
  margin-left: 1em;
}

#news footer .comments:after {
  content: ' comments';
}

#news footer .author:before{
  content: "By ";
}

/* related */

#related {
  background-color: #2a2f33;

  padding: 1em;
}

#related h1 a {
  color: white;
  text-decoration: none;
}

#related p {
  color: white;
}

/* footer */

body > footer {
  background-color: #2a2f33;
  color: white;

  padding: 1em;
  margin-right: 1em;

  height: 1em;
}

body > footer p {
  margin: 0;
}

/* fonts */ 

body {
  font-family: 'Verdana', sans-serif;
}

p {
  font-family: "Georgia", serif;
  line-height: 1.4em;
}

header h2 {
  font-size: 1em;
}

header a {
  font-size: 0.8em;
}

#news header {
  font-size: 1.5em;
}

#news footer {
  font-size: 0.8em;
}

/* section colors */

#menu li:nth-child(1) {
  border-top: 5px solid #e1493e;
}

#menu li:nth-child(2) {
  border-top: 5px solid #8aba56;
}

#menu li:nth-child(3) {
  border-top: 5px solid #5b4282;
}

#menu li:nth-child(4) {
  border-top: 5px solid #ff8932;
}

#menu li:nth-child(5) {
  border-top: 5px solid #19b6e9;
}

#menu li:nth-child(6) {
  border-top: 5px solid #e84c8b;
}

1.2

/* main layout */

body {
  background-color: #edeff0;

  margin: 0 auto;
  width: 60em;

  display: grid;
  grid-template-columns: [start] 4fr [middle] 1fr [end];
  grid-template-rows: [start] auto [nav] auto [news] 1fr [footer] auto [end];
}

body > header {
  grid-column: start / end;
}

#menu {
  grid-column: start;
}

aside {
  grid-column: middle;
  grid-row: nav / end;
}

#news {
  grid-column: start;
}

body > footer {
  align-self: end;
}

/* header layout */

body > header {
  display: grid;
  grid-template-columns: 1fr auto;
  grid-template-rows: auto auto;
}

body > header h1 {
  grid-column: 1;
  grid-row: 1;
}

body > header h2 {
  grid-column: 1;
  grid-row: 2;
}

body > header #signup {
  grid-column: 2;
  grid-row: 2;
}

/* navigation layout */

#menu ul {
  display: flex;
  flex-direction: row;
}

#menu li {
  display: block;
  flex: 1;
}

/* article footer layout */

#news footer {
  display: flex;
}

#news footer .author {
  flex-grow: 1;
}


1.3

/* responsive */

@media (max-width: 60em) {
  body{ 
    width: 100%;
    grid-template-columns: [start] 4fr [end];
    grid-template-rows: [start] auto [nav] auto [news] auto [footer] auto [end];
  }

  #news article {
    margin: 0 0 1em;
  }

  #related {
    display: none;  
  }

  body > footer {
    margin: 0;  
  }
}

@media (max-width: 30em) {
  body > header {
    display: block;
  }

  body > header h1 {
    font-size: 1.5em;  
  } 

  body > header h2 {
    display: none;
  }

  #menu .hamburger {
    display: block;
    background-color: #2a2f33;
    color: white;
    padding: 1em;
  }

  #menu .hamburger:before {
    content:'\2630';
  }

  #menu ul {
    flex-direction: column;
    margin: 0;
    padding: 0;
    color: white;
  }

  #hamburger:checked + .hamburger + ul li{
    max-height: 1em;
    padding: 1em;
    opacity: 1;
  }

  #hamburger:checked + .hamburger:before {
    content:'\2715';
  }

  #menu li {
    max-height: 0;
    padding: 0 1em;
    background-color: #edeff0;
    text-align: left;
    opacity: 0;
    transition: all .3s ease-in-out;
  }
  
  #menu li:nth-child(1) {
    border-top: none;
    border-left: 5px solid #e1493e;
  }

  #menu li:nth-child(2) {
    border-top: none;
    border-left: 5px solid #8aba56;
  }

  #menu li:nth-child(3) {
    border-top: none;
    border-left: 5px solid #5b4282;
  }

  #menu li:nth-child(4) {
    border-top: none;
    border-left: 5px solid #ff8932;
  }

  #menu li:nth-child(5) {
    border-top: none;
    border-left: 5px solid #19b6e9;
  }

  #menu li:nth-child(6) {
    border-top: none;
    border-left: 5px solid #e84c8b;
  }

  #news .tags {
    display: none;  
  }

  #news header {
    color: black;
    max-width: 100%;
    font-size: 1em;
    padding: 1em;
    position: static;
  }

  #news header h1 {
    text-shadow: none;
  }

  #news header a{
    color: black;
  }
}

1.4

#comments {
  margin: 1em;
}


#comments .user {
  font-style: italic;
}

#comments .user:after {
  font-style: normal;
  content: ' said:';
}

#comments .date {
  float: right;
}

#comments p {
  background-color: #edeff0;
  padding: 1em;
}

#comments p:before {
  content: '\201C';
  font-size: 3em;
  position: relative;
  top: 15px;
  color: #ccc;
}

#comments form {
  width: auto;
  margin: 0;
  background-color: #edeff0;
}

#comments input {
  background-color: #edeff0;
}

#comments textarea {
  display: block;
  width: 100%;
  height: 6em;
}

#comments input[type=submit] {
  width: auto;

  background-color: black;
  color: white;

  border: none;
  margin: 1em;
  padding: 1em;
  margin-left: auto;
}

#comments form h2 {
  font-size: 1em;
}

1.5

form {
  background-color: white;
  color: black;
  margin: 2em auto;
  width: 20em;
  padding: 1em;
}

label {
  padding: 1em;
}

label, input {
  display: block;
}

input {
  border: none;
  background-color: white;
  color: black;
  border-bottom: 1px solid black;
  margin-top: 1em;
  width: 100%;
  font-size: 0.9em;
}

input[type=submit] {
  width: auto;

  background-color: black;
  color: white;

  border: none;
  margin: 1em;
  padding: 1em;
  margin-left: auto;
}

input:focus {
  outline: none;
  border-bottom: 1px solid #046dd5;
}

#register h1, #login h1 {
  text-align: center;
}

@media (max-width: 30em) {
  #register, #login {
    background-color: white;
  }
}

2.1

html {
  background-color: #ddddff;
}

body {
  width: 800px;
  margin: 0px auto;
  font-family: times, serif;
  background-color: #ffffff;
}

h1, h2, h3 {
  font-family: verdana, sans-serif;
}

#header {
  background-color: #666666;
  color: #ffffff;
  padding: 20px;
}

#menu {
  background-color: #330000;
}

#menu a{
  color: #ffffff;
  text-decoration: none;
}

#menu ul {
  list-style-type: none;
  padding: 0;
  padding: 10px 0px;
  margin: 0px;
}

#menu li {
  display: inline;
  margin: 10px;
  display: inline;
  border-right: 1px solid #ffffff;
  padding-right: 10px;
  margin-right: 0;
}

#menu li:last-child {
  border: none;
}

#content {
  padding: 0 10px;
}

#content a {
  text-decoration: none;
}

#content h3 {
  font-size: 160%;
  margin: 10px 0;
}

#content img {
  float: left;
  padding: 0 10px 10px 0;
}

#content .introduction {
  font-style: italic;
}

#content .news-item {
  border-bottom: 1px solid black;
}

#content ul {
  list-style-type: none;
  padding: 0;
  padding: 10px 0px;
  margin: 0px;
}

#content li {
  display: inline;
  background-color: #333333;
  padding: 3px 10px;
}

#content li a {
  color: #ffffff;
  text-decoration: none;
}

#footer {
  padding: 0 10px;
}

2.2

html {
  background-color: #000000;
}

body {
  font-family: times, serif;
  background-color: #ffffff;
  margin: 0;
  padding-left: 40px;
  background-image: url(stripe.png);
  background-repeat: repeat-y;
}

h1, h2, h3 {
  font-family: georgia, serif;
}

#header {
  background-color: #000000;
  color: #ffffff;
  padding: 20px;
}

#header h1, #header h2 {
  margin: 0;
}

#header h2 {
  font-size: 100%;
}

#menu {
  background-color: #333333;
}

#menu a{
  color: #000000;
  text-decoration: none;
}

#menu ul {
  list-style-type: none;
  padding: 0;
  padding: 10px 0px;
  margin: 0px;
}

#menu li {
  display: inline;
  margin: 10px;
  display: inline;
  padding: 0 10px;
  margin-right: 0;
  background-color: #ffffff;
}

#content {
  padding: 0 10px;
  width: 800px;
}

#content a {
  text-decoration: none;
  color: #883333;
}

#content h3 {
  font-size: 160%;
  margin: 10px 0;
}

#content img {
  float: right;
  padding: 0 0 10px 10px;
}

#content .introduction {
  font-style: italic;
}

#content .news-item {
  border-bottom: 1px solid black;
}

#content ul {
  list-style-type: none;
  padding: 0;
  padding: 3px 0px;
  margin: 0px;
  background-color: #333333;
}

#content li {
  display: inline;
  padding: 3px 10px;
}

#content li a {
  color: #ffffff;
  text-decoration: none;
}

#footer {
  padding: 0;
  text-align: right;
  width: 800px;
}

2.3

html {
  background-color: #ddddff;
}

body {
  width: 800px;
  margin: 0px auto;
  font-family: times, serif;
  background-color: #669933;
}

h1, h2, h3 {
  font-family: verdana, sans-serif;
}

#header {
  background-color: #336699;
  color: #ffffff;
  padding: 20px;
  position: relative;
}

#header h2 {
  position: absolute;
  top: 0;  left: 0;
  margin: 0; padding: 0;

  text-align: center;

  background-color: #336699;
  padding: 10px 0;
  width: 100%;

  -webkit-transform-origin: 0 0;
  -moz-transform-origin:    0 0;
  -webkit-transform: rotate(90deg);
  -moz-transform: rotate(90deg);
}

#menu {
  background-color: #669933;
  float: right;
  width: 200px;
}

#menu a{
  color: #ffffff;
  text-decoration: none;
}

#menu li {
  list-style-type: none;
  text-align: center;
  padding: 20px;
}

#menu ul {
  width: 0px auto;
  padding: 0;
}

#content {
  padding: 0 10px;
  margin: 0;
  margin-right: 200px;
  background-color: #ffffff;
}

#content a {
  text-decoration: none;
}

#content h3 {
  font-size: 160%;
  margin: 0px 0;
  margin-bottom: 10px;
}

#content img {
  float: left;
  padding: 0 10px 10px 0;
}

#content .introduction {
  font-style: italic;
}

#content .news-item {
  border-bottom: 1px solid black;
}

#content ul {
  list-style-type: none;
  padding: 0;
  padding: 10px 0px;
  margin: 0px;
}

#content li {
  display: inline;
  border-bottom: 3px solid #996633;
  padding: 3px 10px;
}

#content li a {
  color: #333333;
  text-decoration: none;
}

#footer {
  padding: 0 10px;
  background-color: #ffffff;
}

#footer p {
  margin: 0;
}

3.1

body {
  display: flex;
  flex-direction: row;
}

#orange {
  flex-grow: 1;
}

section {
  order: 3;
}

#yellow {
  order: 1;
}

#red {
  order: 2;
}

3.2

body {
  display: grid;
  grid-template-columns: 1fr 1fr 1fr; 
  grid-template-rows: 1fr 1fr 1fr;
  grid-template-areas: 
    "green green green"
    "yellow orange red"
    "yellow blue red";
}

#green {
  grid-area: green;
}

#yellow {
  grid-area: yellow;
}

#orange {
  grid-area: orange;
}

#red {
  grid-area: red;
}

#blue {
  grid-area: blue;
}

3.3

body {
  display: grid;
  grid-template-columns: 1fr 3fr; 
  grid-template-rows: 1fr 1fr 1fr 1fr;
  grid-template-areas: 
    "yellow yellow"
    "blue orange"
    "blue red"
    "blue green"
}

#green {
  grid-area: green;
}

#yellow {
  grid-area: yellow;
}

#orange {
  grid-area: orange;
}

#red {
  grid-area: red;
}

#blue {
  grid-area: blue;
}

#yellow ul, #red ul {
  display: flex;
}

#red ul {
  flex-direction: row-reverse;
}

#yellow li, #red li {
  flex-grow: 1;
}

#yellow li:first-child {
  flex-grow: 3;
}

3.4

body {
  display: grid;
  grid-template-columns: 1fr 1fr 1fr; 
  grid-template-rows: 1fr 2fr 1fr;
  grid-template-areas: 
    "green green green"
    "yellow red blue"
    "orange orange blue";
}

#green {
  grid-area: green;
}

#yellow {
  grid-area: yellow;
}

#orange {
  grid-area: orange;
}

#red {
  grid-area: red;
}

#blue {
  grid-area: blue;
}

#yellow ul, #red ul {
  display: grid;
  grid-template-columns: 1fr 1fr; 
  grid-template-rows: 1fr 1fr;
}