J. Correia Lopes


User Tools

Site Tools


I. Requirements Specification and User Interfaces (ER)

This component groups the artefacts related to the Requirements Specification of the system to be developed during the project. These artefacts are usually included in the Requirements Document of a system [IEEE98] developed in the initial phase of analyses, by a team that includes all project stakeholders.

A1: Project presentation

This artefact introduces the context and motivation and briefly describes the web information system to be developed. It includes the goals of the project and lists the features that should be supported, together with the identified access groups.

A1 MediaLibrary example | A1 template

A2: Actors and User Stories

This artefact contains the specification of the actors and their user stories, serving as agile documentation of project requirements.

An Actor models a type of role played by an entity that interacts with the system being specified. This may include persons (not just the end-user), and other entities external to the system. Actors are always external to the system being modelled; they are never part of the system [Ambler04] .

A User Story is a high-level definition of a requirement containing only the necessary information so that the developers can produce a reasonable estimate of the effort required to implement it [Ambler04] . A user story, a brief description of a potential interaction with the system by one of its users, focuses only on interaction requirements and not on the technical aspects of the design of the system. The user stories have a priority (high or essential, medium or conditional, and low or optional) indicating the need to be included in the design implementation stages and project. A team of expert analysts also includes an estimate of the effort required for its implementation.

Each user story must follow the template [Dennis10] :

“As a [user], I want [function], so that [value]”

The Supplementary requirements are also presented in an Annex to A2.

This annex contains business rules, technical requirements and other restrictions on the project:

  • A business rule defines or constrains one aspect of the business, with the intention of asserting business structure or influencing business behaviour;
  • Technical requirements are concerned with the technical aspects that the system must meet, such as performance-related issues, reliability issues and availability issues;
  • A restriction on the design limits the degree of freedom in the search for a solution [Ambler04 ].

A2: MediaLibrary example | A2 template

A3: User Interfaces Prototype

This User Interface Prototype has the following objectives:

  1. Help to identify and describe the user requirements, and raise new ones;
  2. Preview and empirically test the user interface of the product to be developed;
  3. Enable quick and multiple iterations on the design of the user interface.

Since an User Interface Prototype (or horizontal prototype) allows for a much faster implementation than the final product, it allows to easily test and validate the design at an early stage of the development, enabling empirical testing, such as usability testing and in situ observations of the design being used by real users. It also permits to quickly iterate on the design of the interface, implementing the results from the initial tests.

This artefact should include three elements:

  1. Overview of the interface elements and features common to all pages;
  2. Overview of the information system from the viewpoint of the users (sitemap); and
  3. Identification and description of the main interactions with the system (at least two), organized as sequences of screens (storyboards).

The user interfaces must be implemented using HTML, CSS, JS. The overview of the interface elements must include a presentation of the behavior of the interfaces in small screen devices such as smartphones. This artefact includes screenshots of the interfaces, alongside with a link to a web page for each interface implemented.

A3: MediaLibrary example | A3 template

teach/lbaw/artefacts_er.txt · Last modified: 11/02/2019 17:22 by Correia Lopes